The human brain is an incredibly complex organ, which is so intricate that it is not yet fully understood by scientists.
The main part of the brain is called the cerebrum. The cerebrum is comprised of two sides (hemispheres). Each hemisphere largely controls the opposite side of the body. The brain is surrounded by a colourless fluid called cerebrospinal fluid which acts to cushion the brain and provides protection from infection.
The lungs are organs which are responsible for transporting oxygen from the surrounding air into the bloodstream for use round the body, whilst removing carbon dioxide.
The structure of the respiratory (breathing) system can be compared to branches of a tree; the main air pipe (trachea) is the trunk of the tree, which divides to from two small branches (right and left main bronchi), each supplying air to the right and left lung, respectively. From there, the airways get progressively smaller (bronchioles) until they reach very small airway spaces (alveoli and alveoli sacs), which resemble bunches of grapes. Within the alveoli, the oxygen moves across the alveoli wall into a blood vessel on the other side. Simultaneously, carbon dioxide leaves the blood stream and enters the alveoli to be exhaled.
The stomach is a sac-like organ that is attached to the bottom end of your gullet (oesophagus). After swallowing food, food gets pushed by muscles within the oesophagus via a process called peristalsis, before reaching the stomach. This is where the process of digesting food begins.
The stomach is not just a short term storage facility for food; it mechanically churns up the food and contains stomach acid and enzymes. The acid helps to kill any bacteria or other microorganisms contained within the food that cause illness or ‘stomach upset’, but the stomach lining itself is specialised to withstand the effect of the acid. The enzymes (pepsinogen) within stomach fluid are specifically able to break down protein within the diet (e.g. fish, meat, eggs). The stomach acid also helps to activate the pepsinogen, converting it into pepsin.
The liver is a very large, red/brown organ that lies on the upper right hand side of your abdomen.
The liver is a very complicated organ and performs numerous different functions, including making and storing fuel for the body (glycogen), removal of toxins, storing of vitamins and minerals, helping with blood clotting and production of a bile (digestive juice) which breaks down fats to name only a few!
The colon and rectum are parts of the body involved in the digestive process. The colon and rectum together forms a large tube that escorts waste from the body and lies at the end of the digestive system.
The main function of the colon is to remove water from the remaining waste products to create a formed stool. The rectum then works to expel the stool from the body.